Старинный рецепт пива, возрастом 5000 лет. Из чего делали и как варили пиво в древнем Китае

Старинный рецепт пива, возрастом 5000 лет. Из чего делали и как варили пиво в древнем Китае


Neolithic archaeological
plot of Mijiaya in the city Xi’an was opened in 1923
year, but only from 2004 to 2006. During the excavation was uncovered
3 cultural layers of united in a group called
janshao in the eastern part the Yellow River. Including banpo cultures,
Miodigou and Kazhenzhuang from 3400 to 2000 BC. station
in 45 hectares, has cultural layers depth from 1.5 to 4
meters. As a result of the excavations,
found 166 depressions with ceramics. From the earliest, tests
pollen showed that the climate in those days was arid
with characteristic steppe vegetation. As a result of the excavations,
Two pits, period batho age from 3400
and 2,900 years BC, with artifacts, which resemble installations
for brewing. In both pits were discovered
three types of vessels: wide-brimmed pots, watering cans and amphoras with
lengthened bottom with yellowish sediment on the bottom. Forms of vessels reflect
brewing processes up to filtration and storage. To study the sediment, scientists
conducted starchy, phytolite and chemical analyzes to
confirm the earliest facts of brewing in the ancient
China and unravel the ancient a recipe for beer. Although the publication is still from
2016, anyway, it’s interesting. In China, the earliest written
evidence of beer appears from the late Shang dynasty
(approximately 1250-1046 years. BC.) According to the inscriptions, people
Shang used malt grains, including millet
and barley or wheat, in as main ingredients
brewing, millet or barley was not clear, because
as in Chinese characters for them the same designation. Scientists have suggested that
the tradition of brewing in China originates
from the Neolithic Yangshao (5000-2900 BC), when in the valley
The Yellow River was founded large-scale agricultural
settlements. Because the first evidence
manufacturing of fermented drinks, but from rice, were
date from 9000 years, from settlements on the Yellow River,
Jiahu. Thanks to archaeological
data, phytolite and chemical analyzes, scientists have found out,
that the people of Janshao cooked a mixed beer with specialized
tools and knowledge for temperature control. The results indicate
the fact that the representatives of Yangshuo developed a sophisticated method
fermentation by addition and brewing malt hot
water with various starch-containing plants. The ancient Chinese were great
gourmets, they added in beer a variety of tubers,
which contained starch and sugar for fermentation,
while adding beer sweetish taste. Probably, during the experiments
they developed their own recipes. One such recipe
scientists have determined the experienced by way of. It was, probably, quite
interesting, brew beer choosing the proportions of ingredients
and analyze what tracks leaves its sediment. This activity was entrusted
students. Surely a working day
Ends with pleasure … Most of all with Chinese
the recipe coincided as follows: A mixture of 75% millet seed
or mohar and 25% barley, immersed in water until germination
at a temperature of 20-28 ° C. Most grains germinated
After 8 days, then they were pressed and dried. Then the malt grains were crushed
and mixed with heated water to achieve the ultimate
temperature 65 ° С. The temperature was maintained
within 2 hours. Finally, the puree was cooled
at room temperature and allowed to wander
in a brewing container within 2 days. During fermentation, each
the container was closed with a lid to create anaerobic
environment. Composition of starch ingredients
during fermentation was from millet, wheat, iovlevyh
tears or a little bead with a small the number of tubers of plants,
including the root of pumpkin (Trichozant Kirilova), yams
(of the genus Dioscoria) and the lily beautiful. As a result, the beer turned out
thick and if not filtered, then you can drink it only
through a straw. The presence of barley in the ancient
China, causes a lot of questions, since these events occurred
one thousand years before the start growing it in the region. Barley was first domesticated
in Western Eurasia, and then moved to China, presumably,
through the Central Asian steppe. Maybe the barley was pretty
exotic food time. Farmers probably received
it in the process of exchange with neighbors, but also neighbors
he appeared significantly later. Probably brewing in China
associated with increased social complexity in the fourth
millennium BC. The period of the Yanshao cultures, in
region of the Wei River, characterized by hierarchically organized
structures of settlements with ritual feasts
elites. Houses grew larger
with a hearth in the center of the room. Probably production
and beer consumption in Yangshao, contributed to the
hierarchical societies in the region known as
“The cradle of Chinese civilization.” So, that ruins people not
beer, and quite different things. But, and I do not say goodbye, do not forget
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