Cooking Glossary

Cooking Glossary


Sitting down to eat or share a good meal that
you’ve just made in the kitchen can feel like getting a gold medal in adulting. But getting to that point can be tricky, and often requires a bit of knowledge in the language of cooking. Learning that language can be overwhelming,
so we put together a short glossary for a few of those tricky cooking terms to get you
fired up for crafting your own culinary masterpieces! [INTRO MUSIC] First off, it seemed important to start with
the basics: what does ‘cooking’ really mean? Well, it’s simple. Cooking just means applying heat. But before you can apply heat, you need an
understanding of what it is you’re trying to accomplish, which ingredients to choose,
and how to prepare those ingredients. So let’s start with looking at some tricky
ingredients. Like, what’s the difference between baking
powder and baking soda? So when you put baking soda or powder into a
recipe, you’re probably trying to get some sort of baked good to puff up. The difference between the two is that baking
powder has an ingredient that activates the chemical processes that make your cakes
and breads fluffy, whereas baking soda needs an additional ingredient to get that fluff. Powder’s got power to rise, soda will result
in something sodarn flat. When we asked around the office for ideas,
we found one common ingredient conundrum involved garlic. Okay, so this is definitely garlic. Yes. Um, there’s the little bits inside–I’m
just going to break one out. And I–this is a clove, and this is a head,
but there’s a third word: a bulb. And I’m like, I’m always like, ‘which
one is that? Do you want a bulb? Or do you want a bulb?’ Well, a bulb is just a head. So the bulb is this. Yes. This–the big thing. The mothership. Condensed and evaporated milk are both just
milk with the water taken out. The difference between the two is that condensed
milk is sweetened and evaporated milk is not. Knowing how much of an ingredient to put
in, is just as important as what the ingredient is. There are three main ways to measure your
ingredients: by count (like two eggs), by volume, or by mass. A cup, tablespoon, teaspoon, pinch, milliliter,
fluid ounce, pint, liter, quart, and gallon measure volume, or how much space an ingredient
takes up. An ounce, lb, gram, or kilogram are measures
of how much mass an ingredient has, or how much physical stuff exists and can be measured
with a zeroed-out scale. Sometimes a recipe will ask for just a ‘pat’ of butter. And it’s like… what is that? It’s like a single serving… like when you’re at the diner. And it varies from country to country, but roughly this. Finally, a recipe calling for a scant tablespoon
or scant cup is calling for an amount just shy of the specified measurement. So: a little less than a full tablespoon or
cup. There’s another thing that’s like scant,
except when they say ‘heaping’. It’s a ‘heaping teaspoon’, and it’s
like a teaspoon, but a little bit more than a teaspoon. And I’m like, ‘are you kidding me right
now? Just tell me how much!’ After you know what your ingredients are,
and how much of it you need, you’ve gotta do stuff to it to change its chemistry and
make it taste the way you want it to. Baking Blind means baking or partially baking
the crust of a pie before putting the filling in. You’d do this for pies that you don’t
want to bake the filling in, like a meringue, or for a pumpkin pie that could potentially
get the soggy crust. Blanching is exposing food to boiling water
for a brief period, then (usually) putting it in a cold water bath. You might blanch something in order to loosen
or remove skin, soften veggies, preserve nutrients for canning, or to extract liquids or undesired
flavors. Okay, so boiling makes sense. It’s when liquid starts transitioning to
steam. Bubbles bubbling up and all that jazz. Well, next time you boil water, note that
not all boiling is the same. As you heat up the water, you’ll notice
that it’s starting to kind of twitch. There’s no bubbles, but something’s going
on. This is the temperature where you’ll want your
liquid to be when poaching, which we’ll talk about later. After that you’ll get bubbles that reach
the surface, but don’t break. That’s a simmer. If you wait a little longer, a few bubbles
will start to break the surface. A couple bubbles escaping the pot every once
and awhile is a low boil. A Roiling (or rolling or full) boil is when
your water is enthusiastically spitting up bubbles every which-way, and you can’t make
it go any faster. Braising means cooking a thing in a small
layer of liquid in a pot with a snug lid. If it’s a big piece of meat, sometimes it’s
called a pot roast. Broiling means cooking with dry intense heat
on one side. Your oven manual will have more information
on how your particular broiler works. In most cases, though, the broiling element
is in the top of your oven, and can be used kind of like an upside-down grill, except
the food doesn’t actually touch the heating element. You know when you’re done cooking your steak
or chicken and there’s a bunch of stuff left in the pan? Well, after removing any fat from the top,
deglazing is when you add a liquid (usually a wine or a stock) to those leftovers and
heat to a brief boil to make a delicious pan sauce. It’s like scrumptious recycling! When you’re cooking something really sensitive
like eggs, cream, or chocolate, double-boilers protect your ingredient by indirectly heating
it. A double boiler looks about what it sounds
like, a bottom pot for the water, and a top pot for the ingredients. The top pot is nested inside the bottom pot,
which has a small layer of water in it. When you heat the water to a boil, the steam
heats the thing inside the top pot. You can make a double boiler at home out of
a sauce pan and a bowl made out of pyrex, glass, or metal like this! Dredging also known as breading! In places other than the kitchen the word
dredge sounds kind of gross. Like scraping up the mud at the bottom of a river bed, or bringing up
(again) the story about that time that Cousin Ben left potatoes behind the microwave and
no one found them until New Years Eve. But this dredging is the good kind. Dredging in a cooking-sense is coating a wet
or moist ingredient with a dry powder. It’s like coating a piece of meat in flour
before frying it. Mise en Place is a french term for getting
your stuff all in place before you cook. Get your veggies washed and chopped, your
ingredients measured out, your butter room-temperatured, your oven pre-heated, and so on. Nothing is worse than starting into a recipe
and then having to run around the kitchen trying to gather your ingredients while your
pot boils over or something catches on fire. If you prep your kitchen before-hand, you’re
more likely to get all of the portions correct, and you’re less likely to burn something. Poaching is a gentle method for cooking food
in a liquid that is just under simmering- that twitchy water we talked about earlier. Poaching is good for delicate meats that easily
break apart like fish, or for eggs that still have their yolks intact and runny. Sautéing is a method of cooking where your
ingredients, in constant motion, are heated over high heat in an open pan with some fat. Sifting is a way to prep flour for use by
lightening it up, getting rid of clumps, and sometimes mixing it up with other dry ingredients. You can use a fancy sifter that will force
the flour through a fine mesh, but you can also just use a strainer to help remove clumps. Flour these days is a little better at not
clumping than the flour of yore, so don’t sweat it if you don’t have a sifter. I don’t have a sifter. That’s beautiful. It does look nice. So soft. Sous vide is a method of cooking with ingredients
in a vacuum seal submerged in hot water or heated with steam Finally, sometimes a recipe will call for
just the egg yolk or the egg whites. We’re going to try and demonstrate one way
to separate the two. [laughing]
Try. [Hank]
I have no confidence in my ability to do this. I think the trick to this, is to get, like, a thousand eggs. [Rachel makes a suspenseful noise] [Hank]
Oh, did I do it? Ah, oh— I just go back and forth—I broke the yolk. I did break the yolk. But I feel like I—feel like I did pretty good. [Laughing]
I didn’t do great. [Rachel]
All right. Oh fudge… [Hank]
Do you have a different way than I do? [Hank]
Good… good… good… Pretty good… [Hank]
I think you did better than me. [Rachel chuckles] [Hank]
You did WAY better than me! This is really, like, the only thing that I know what to do is practice. Like, get… three dozen eggs… [Hank]
Oh! It’s so beautiful! Look at you! [Rachel, delighted]
Oh, it’s so cute! Ah, I feel like a failure… [Rachel, laughing]
I am more adult [laughing] [Hank]
Oh my god, it’s gorgeous. Thanks for joining us on this tasty journey! We hope we cleared up a few tricky cooking
terms, and fired up the ovens of your imagination. There were many great suggestions for cooking
terms that we didn’t have enough space for, so let us know in the comments if you liked
this glossary, and we’ll make another one! So much to cover! So much. [Hank makes an eating noise]
[Rachel makes a grossed-out noise] Noooo Do you not like butter? Well… I don’t like the idea of putting a giant thing of it… I love butter SO MUCH. Needs to be spread. [Sniffs]
OH MY GOSH I WANT A BAGEL You know how, like… Oh no. Never mind. Just kidding. [Laughter] Good outtake, Rachel. For pumpkin pie that could potentially get suh—get the soggy crust. You want to put the salt… On the butter and eat it? Uh huh. [Rachel shudders]
Oh boy. It doesn’t help that my sharp tooth is like… [soft dinosaur hiss?] Is it like a chip? No, it’s just a really sharp molar. I only just realized why cookies are called cookies. Why are they called cookies? ‘Cause you cook them. I mean… They should be called bookies. They should be called bakies. We should make our own cookie dough. Bakie dough. [laughter] Hank & Rachel’s Bakies!

100 thoughts on “Cooking Glossary”

  1. double boil…. that's just boiling something twice (like tomato's for pasta sauce)
    what you guy's meant is called 'au bain marie', and a tip for separating eggs, just break em in a bowl, get an empty bottle, squish it, hover over the yolk, and release the squish
    but nice video for the non cooks among us

  2. The yolk of an egg will fit perfectly into a shallow table spoon (the kind you put on the table, not the kind you measure with) – if you press the edge of the spoon against the side of the bowl and tip, you can usually drain the white into the bowl without losing the yolk. Once you get the hang of doing it that way separating eggs get super easy.

    I always, ALWAYS bake mise en place, with all my tools laid out and my ingredients measured out into small bowls – it's just so much easier to have it all ready to go. Meanwhile my family makes fun of me for "pretending you're on one of those cooking shows" XD On the other hand I outright refuse to waste my time sifting flour even though the people on those cooking shows keep saying how important it can be.

  3. This is a great example of why I never follow any recipe and just make my own. It really doesn't have to be that complicated. Just boil some whole grains/beans/whatever, add some vegetables (like kale, spinach or carrots), add fat (like nuts, seeds or avocados), and then some spice (like salt) or other flavor enhancer (like nutritional yeast). You can figure out all the other details with some practice and common sense.

  4. you really shouldn't crack eggs on the side of a bowl, it's much better to do it on a flat surface like the counter or a plate. doing it on the side of the bowl can push shards of the shell up into the egg

  5. 5:20 i cannot say this enough: deglaze. your. pans.
    Those 10-30 seconds can provide you with some of the best & easiest sauce's you'll ever make to go with your meal.
    2-4cl of water/person, or maybe some wine, maybe some water+beer/wine?
    You can even add a bit of milk to the water, and some spices to accent the flavors!

    Those 10-30 seconds are a f*cking art into itself and EVERYONE should practice this art!
    It takes a minute to prepare when you have nothing to do but wait for the meat to be ready and tastes godlike.

    Love,
    a way too fanatical amateur cook.

  6. I've always found it easier to separate yolks and whites by just dumping the egg into my hand and spreading my fingers just a bit. The white just kinda falls apart through my fingers and the yolk stays behind.

  7. "Are you kidding me right now? Just tell me how much!" This is why I got a cheap scale and always use gram measures now when baking. But now I need to go through the extra effort of converting cup recipes to grams, because this is America, which is fun.

  8. How to separate eggs, according to my husband the cook: take an empty water bottle, squeeze it, use the suction to pull out the yolk after you've broken the egg into a bowl.

  9. For Brits: "broiling" is just what americans call "grilling"; we don't really have a separate word for what americans call "grilling", on a griddle it's kinda like frying but without oil/fat other than the meat's own fat (I guess we might sometimes call it braising) but otherwise we don't distinguish between whether the indirect dry heat's coming from an element above or charcoal below. We also often call "double boiler" a "bain marie"

  10. Another cooking one? Cooking just isn't that important to being an adult. If you want to do a cooking channel, do a cooking channel. But please don't misname it "How to Adult".

  11. Egg separating tips:
    1. use a plastic (disposable) water bottle to suck the yolk out of the bowl (go look for a video. there are tons of them)
    2. crack the egg onto your fingers, let the white slip through the cracks. the yolk will be left on your fingers so long as they were close enough together.

  12. how to separate egg white and yolk? break the egg on a plate and use an empty bottle to suck out the yolk, done

  13. Actually, cooking is just the preparation and processing of raw food ingredients into a meal, it doesn't necessary involve chemical or physical changes.

  14. Yeah after working in a restaurant and occasionally having to separate 100+ eggs practice really does make it easier. Though when you're separating that many eggs at a time you do it differently.

  15. seven of these I didn't know, one other I've had wrong my whole life and I'm 32 with 2kids (one with a special diet even!) and own my own company. I'm as adult as I can be lol. please make another! there's still things in recipies where I go "whaa?" and get more wrinkles and grey hairs

  16. For the egg yolk, if you use a water bottle thats a little squishy/scrunchy you can just suck the egg yolk up into with without sucking up the egg white.

  17. When I'm separating eggs I always do it over a small bowl and then dump it into bigger one before doing the next egg. That way if I break the yolk on one I've only ruined that one egg and not the other 3, cause murphys law says that it's gonna be the last one that breaks into all the other successful ones…

  18. I think it would be fun to make a video on how to do basics of cooking. Things like, how you make a roux or stock or rice. simple stuff that makes your food more adult than say "Kraft mac and cheese" or "processed ramen".

  19. Old adult here, and full disclosure, this cooking thing is still hit and miss for me. For a while there I found myself in a kitchen slaving over the microwave buttons more often than not. But I'm making my way back, baby! So, I gotta be honest… I hate touching uncooked meat. Problem, I enjoy eating a perfectly cooked rib-eye or snacking on homemade chicken nuggets. So, when I saw one of those auto-play videos on Facebook for how to roast a whole chicken in a bundt pan, I just had to do it. SO easy! My first try was, well a "first try." My next attempt, today, was AMAZING! Just the right sized veggies to cook evenly with the bird. I actually bought fresh rosemary sprigs, and also conquered my garlic smashing and seasoning insecurities. There was even enough juices collected at the bottom of the pan to store and refrigerate for later use. SO good! I can't believe how easy it is to make, crazier yet, who goes 50-some years never having roasted a chicken!? Also, brining… who knew?

  20. A sieve can be combined with a whisk to reach almost the same levels of sifting as a sifter, in the case that you have specialist flours that clumps together more than average. It can be a bit unwieldy so just make sure that everything else is stable so you don't throw flower over the kitchen when reaching for a falling bowl or similar.

  21. perhaps whole playlist like : how to adult presents "how not to starve" (basic cooking). other topics that you could do whole subcategory are basic sewing, basic gardening/lawn maintains, minor household repair, pet safety (for yourself, others and your pet) or basic child care (for your own or others)

  22. Good tip for cracking eggs so you don't break the yolk and don't get as many bits of shell into the bowl: crack the egg on a flat surface like the counter or a table instead of on the edge of the bowl.

  23. People keep giving the empty bottle advice and I am here thinking "Do you know how hard it is to clean the inside of that water bottle? Why would you want to add more bacteria to your eggs? Just use your hands or a spoon please!"

  24. This video made me aware that I need to see a video collab between Alton Brown and Hank Green. The antics that would ensue!

  25. Here's a link to a a cooking glossary on the Poorcraft comic. http://www.gocomics.com/poorcraft/2017/01/16 so you can see this written down. 🙂 They also have lots of tips for living on your own on the cheep.

  26. Separating eggs: use a coffee cup or something else small and do them one at a time. Then pour each egg white into a larger container as you go. You don't want to have five perfectly separated egg whites ruined by a little speck of yolk from egg #6.

    Also, the magic ingredient that makes baking powder different from baking soda is an acid. You'll use baking soda in recipes where there's already something acidic to activate it, like buttermilk or a bit of lemon juice or vinegar.

  27. for breading/dredging you may also here pane (pronounced pah-nai) and you may also hear the broiler called the grill

  28. Easiest but kinda gross way to separate eggs is to crack eggs then use your fingers to keep yolk while the whites drain into a bowl

  29. Oh my, after watching this, I feel like now I'm familiar with more cooking terms in English than in my native language.

  30. They should call cookies "bacon", cause you bake them. And then you should call bacon "fries" cause you fry 'em. And then you should call fries "chips" and chips "crisps" because… uhh… England.

  31. tips regarding the eggs:
    if you need to fluff up the eggwhites it is important that everything you use is fat free, so make sure you properly clean the bowls/utensils you're using, or might not be able to get the desired results.
    when seperating more than 1 egg it can be smart to use 3 bowls: seperate above bowl 1, then deposit yolk in bowl 2, and move the whites from bowl 1 to bowl 3 before starting your next egg above bowl one. this way if your yolk accidentally breaks you have only wasted one eggwhites instead of all of what you had already done (especially if you need to fluff the whites, because yolks are fatty and will keep it from properly fluffing up)

  32. packing density can really affect volume measurements, e.g. 1 gram of coarse salt takes up more volume than 1 gram of fine salt, due to coarse salt having more air between the salt grains, it can really mess up baking if you add a teaspoon of fine salt instead of a teaspoon of coarse salt. using weight then 1g of coarse salt is the same amount of salt as 1g of fine salt (although they'll occupy different volumes, but the actual amount of salt is the same), so it is advisable to use weight over volume when possible for solids (liquids will always pack most efficiently, so for that volume is fine), if not, make sure you carefully check if you've got the same coarseness the recipe asks for

  33. I use an empty plastic bottle to separate yolk! I use it to gently suck the yolk and move it to another bowl!

  34. Why do recipes use even weirder units than standard imperial ones? Adding to that, there are 2 different definitions of a cup. Why not simply use g and ml like the rest of the world?! (and there is no ambiguity of measurement method as with the ounce)

  35. The purpose of sifting is to aerate the flour, not just get rid of any lumps. Aerated flour gives a lighter fluffier end product.

  36. Many cookbooks also have glossaries or even sections explaining terms and techniques, and libraries will frequently have cookbooks available if you can't afford your own or don't have space to store them. Getting a binder and putting in copies of recipes you like is a really good personal resource that you can use for the rest of your life. There are fancy ways to do this, but you can make a basic version yourself using old or on-sale school supplies.

  37. If you can get over the ickiness factor, the easiest way to separate egg yolks is to just crack the egg into your open hand and let the white run through your fingers. It's also a good idea to seperate your whites into one bowl, then pour them into a bigger bowl, so if you mess up and break a yolk, you only contaminate one egg worth of whites instead of the whole batch.

  38. You can also separate the white from the yoke by cracking the egg as normal and then using something like a plastic bottle to pick up the yoke with suction. This way you're less likely to break the yoke and less likely to make a mess. I personally use little silicon dressing things that are meant to go in a lunch box. Really anything with a narrow mouth that you can squeeze to produce suction will work.

  39. The easiest way to separate a yolk from a white in an egg is to wash a plastic water bottle to use.

    First, crack your egg in bowl. The whole egg, yolk and all. Then, squeeze the water bottle and place it over the yolk. Release the squeeze and the yolk will go right into the mouth of the bottle! Easy separation and easy storage if you want to use the yolk later for something else!

  40. I watch a ton of cooking videos already so I thought I wouldn't learn anything but I actually did. I would definitely watch another video like this

  41. For separating egg yolks, I've seen some chefs do what you guys did, some chefs use a waterbottle to suck it out, some chefs just crack it in their hand so the white runs through their fingers while the yolk just stays. I think the simplest option is just getting a spoon and scooping it out.

  42. BTW, there's a thing you can buy to help with separating egg yolks. It looks like a small measure cup, but it can be placed on a bowl and you just release your egg into it and the white yolk goes through the slots around the bottom edge of the cup.

  43. Super-easy way to separate your eggs: crack them into your hand and let the white flow through your fingers into the bowl.

  44. what!? you don't just set the burner on high, through everything in and pray to the gods it comes out edible? What if I prayed in French?

  45. I cooked my boyfriend pancakes and on accident I mixed up “Baking Powder” with “Baking soda” 😂 they tasted so bad but he ate all of them because he knew I was upset about messing up…. 🙁 #TrueLove

  46. I threw my phone when she said, "what does cooking really mean?"
    Then I crushed it when she explained the difference between Baking Powder & Soda.
    Then put a bullet in my head when she talked about boiling.

  47. I always used to seporate egg in the shell, now i crack the egg into a clean hand and let the whites slip through my fingers. Sound gross, but i never break a yolk!

  48. First learn to where a chefs cap
    Hair should not fall outside of it
    And please respect the chef cap because many people are making their career as a chef and a chef cap is their CROWN

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