How To Make Sourdough Bread Masterclass

How To Make Sourdough Bread Masterclass

{an8} So what we’re going to do now is, is we’re going to show you how to
make some sourdough bread. Sourdough has got quite
fashionable and trendy. It’s on a lot of restaurant menus. Sourdough is trending since about
5000 B.C. It’s the oldest form of
leavened bread. So while we think we’ve a big
tradition with soda bread, your granny might have made it – this is what her
granny’s granny used to make. This is what we’re all
trying to get back to. So the big revolution,
the big future in food, the future in bread, is about going
back. Back to the past. And this is what we’re trying
to get back to. Beautiful,
beautiful sourdoughs, naturally fermented,
with our seeded sourdough a bit of malthouse. As I say, you could have a
hundred different types. In order
to make sourdough bread, is to make your sourdough starter,
or your sourdough culture. The process is very, very simple. It’s simply just a mix of
flour and water. So we’ve got 50 grams of flour and to that we’re adding
50 mls of water. Stir it together. And that is simply it. Now what we’re going to do
is to leave that to sit out in your kitchen,
just gently covered, ambient temperature, overnight,
for about 12 hours. So at the moment, we’re
surrounded by wild yeast. It’s a good strain of bacteria,
it exists everywhere. You breathe it in everyday. And then basically
over a process of using simply just flour
and just water, it eventually picks up that
bacteria in the air. And that bacteria starts to ferment.
It starts to live off the protein within the flour,
so it starts to rise and collapse. Realistically it takes about
7 or 10 days to make it. But for a lot of people,
I know, I’m not making a loaf of bread if
it takes 7 or 10 days to make it, but the idea is, once you
get up and going once, that’s virtually about it. As long as you don’t use it all,
you’ll never run out. So you only have to do it
one time in your life. So we’ll mix it together,
flour and water. About 12 hours later,
it looks a little bit like this. So at this stage,
we would be due to mix this with another 50 grams of flour
and another 50 mls of water. Stir it together and that’s it. Again, we let it sit overnight. Day 3 we repeat the process. Then on Day 4,
we can already see it’s starting to become
lovely and bubbly. You can see all these little bubbles
coming lovely and active. And this is the sign of life
starting to form. This is exactly what
we’re looking for. It’s starting to ferment. It’s all the good things in life –
wine, beer, cheese, bread. All based on the same principle. So you will find it starts to take
on a sweet, vinegary kind of smell. But don’t worry, that’s exactly
what we’re looking for. But if you find a little liquid
starting to come away from it, don’t worry about that either,
just put it straight back in. So we’re going to give this
another day. And we’re going to feed it again –
one more time. And by the time it’s ready, most likely on about Day 7. Don’t worry
if you find that maybe, on Day 6 or Day 7,
it’s not exactly there yet. Don’t be afraid to give it
an extra day. Because it will differ, depending on
the environment it was kept in. So if it needs an extra day, just
give it an extra day. But now we’ve got our lovely
active sourdough. It’s got that lovely vinegary smell. You can see it’s been kind of rising
up the glass. This started about here earlier on
and now it’s climbed up to here. So it’ll continue to rise and then it will drop back down. So at this stage,
it’s basically ready to go. Well, if I’m completely honest,
this is Day 2. This is Day 4. And this is Year 9. I’ve had this for 9 years. So as long as I don’t use it all,
I’ll never run out. So all I’ll simply do, for example
after we make our bread today, I will have 200 grams left over. I will simply stir in 200 flour,
200 water, and tomorrow,
it’s ready to go again. Because I keep mine
at room temperature, I’ve to feed mine everyday. But for the home-baker, who might
only bake once a week, or at weekends
when you’ve a bit more time, it can become quite an expensive pet
to keep if you feed it every day. So what you can simply do
is keep yours in the fridge. Because it’s based on bacteria,
cold won’t kill it. It’ll just slow it down. So for example, you’re going to be
baking on a Saturday morning. Take it out of your fridge on a
Friday, just leave it sit in your kitchen
to take the chill off it. That evening, say whatever weight
you have. For example, 200 grams. Stir in 200 flour, 200 water
leave it sit in your kitchen. Next morning it’s going to be
lovely and bubbly. lovely and active,
ready to make your bread. Take what you need to
make your bread, whatever is left over,
back in your fridge, that’s it. So you’ve a little
once a week cycle. You find it gets better with age –
the flavour starts to develop. So even if you’re not baking, you still have to feed it, because
technically it is alive. So if you’re building up too much, just bin some away, just keep back
enough to keep it going. And the easiest ratio to work off, is whatever weight you have here, same weight of flour,
same weight of water. Could not be simpler. Now, in order to make our
sourdough bread, we’ve got our sourdough starter.
As I say, it takes about a week. Get it going today, you’ll be ready
by next weekend. Ready to go,
perfect to make your bread. If not,
you could always get down to your local baker. Most real bread bakeries will
happily give you some starter. If you check out it’s got all the real bread bakers
across Ireland. And most of them like myself, are
happy to give you a little starter, if you can’t get your own going. So with this one, we’re going to
make enough for two loaves. The great thing about this is
we can bake two loves. We can pop one in the freezer and
have one to try fresh in the day. And sourdough comes
back great from the freezer. So we’ve get 800 grams
of strong flour. To this… we’re going to add 460 mls, or 460 grams of water. We’re taking about
10 grams of salt. Salt is an essential ingredient. Salt acts as a natural flavour
enhancer. We’ve got our flour,
we’ve got our water, we’ve got our salt
and then finally, we just need a little bit of our
sourdough starter. So we’re using 320 grams. Just make sure we don’t use it all. Like you would any other recipe,
just add your yeast straight in. And in this case,
our sourdough starter. Once your ingredients are all in, just start bringing everything
together. So once the dough roughly comes
together, just dump it, straight out on the table. The gluten forms
once we add a liquid. At the moment,
the gluten is quite weak. So we want to build up the
strength of our dough, by what we call kneading. The idea of kneading
is you simply stretch and work the dough. So you will find the dough goes
a little bit wet and a little bit sticky. Generally everyone’s reaction at
home is to immediately reach for some flour
and keep adding in there. But if you keep adding flour, the
dough will quite happily soak it up. And then the more it soaks it up,
the heavier the dough becomes and the tighter
your bread will be. So when it comes to kneading,
you will get a lot of recipes suggesting the best technique,
how best to knead. To be honest, the one piece of
advice I give most people is think about somebody
you don’t like, and just go for it! So I tend to use the heel of my
hand, a little short stretch, and then use my fingers. Just pin the dough between
here and here and hook it back. And if you can pick yourself up
a little dough scraper, absolutely great. It’s almost like a little extension
of your hand. Bring it all back together again
and keep working away. So most recipes will suggest how
long to need for. Most of them will say
8 to 10 minutes. Most of them are lying,
but the thing is, it’s very difficult for a recipe to
be exact. Because everybody is
a little bit different. Some people are just stronger than
others, some days you’re tired. The dough will always tell you
when it’s ready. There’s a thing called the
window-pane effect. You can see it’s getting elastic,
it’s getting there. But as I stretch and work it out,
it’s just ripping, it’s tearing. And that’s just the dough telling me
it’s not ready. It just needs a little more work.
So just keep on going. And if you do have a mixer at home,
feel free to use it. The dough hook will do exactly the
same thing as your hands are doing. You’re going to feel the dough
starting to change. You can even see already,
how beautiful and silky how lovely and smooth
the dough has become. Like you saw earlier,
when we tested it initially, it just kept ripping, it kept
tearing. So we’ll take a little oil in your hands. It’ll stop the dough
from sticking to you. And nice and gently stretch the
dough, working it out. You can see the shadows,
the membrane behind it. It’s exactly what we’re looking for. So earlier,
that just ripped and tore. But now, that’s holding.
It’s elastic. It’s got the strength we need,
that’s exactly what we’re looking
for. So bring your dough back together. Back into one piece.
Into your bowl. And now I’m going to let it prove. With sourdough however, because
it’s a more natural process, everything tends to happen much,
much slower. So where most yeast recipes need
to prove for about an hour, this one, we’re going to be looking
at about three hours. So you need to leave it
plenty of time. So we’re going to let this prove
for three hours. So when you come back to it, you’ll be looking at
something like this. What we’ll be doing now, is we’re
simply knocking our dough back. Because as much as we say the
longer you prove it the better, you don’t want to over-prove
your bread. Simply take it out of your bowl and try and make it into
a round ball. And again, don’t over-think it. By making it into a ball,
you’ll have simply knocked it back
knocked all the air from it. So you’re kind of back to where you
would have been three hours ago. So now, what we need to do
at this stage, is we need to shape our dough. So with the quantity we made,
it gives us the perfect portion to make two lovely sized loaves. So when we’re shaping our breads,
we use proving baskets. Because it’s going to be proving
for another three hours, it would just slowly start
to prove out, and go very, very flat. So by using the basket, it gives the
dough support. It encourages it to take on that
shape, so instead of proving out, it proves up. But if you don’t have
a basket, you could use absolutely anything. A tin, a tray,
a box, a bowl. It’s simply something that’s going
to support and help your dough out. And probably,
I’m sure all of us have… a Pyrex dish at home. If you don’t have it, your mum has,
your gran has. They’re always kicking
around everywhere. We take a little flour
and dust it all over. Coating it
with a little coating of flour, will stop the dough from sticking. So the best thing to do is simply
take a clean tea-towel. You could use your mixing bowl,
or whatever you like. Pop your tea-towel in. And again just a good generous
coating of flour. Just to make sure that the dough
won’t stick. So all that’s left to do now
is to shape our dough. So no matter what we’re shaping, we always kind of start
from a round base. Again, try not to use too much
flour. Just a very gentle coating if you
find your dough is a little soft or a little bit sticky.
Simply flip your dough over. Take all your little edges and push
them down to the centre. Go to the next one. And then overlap the last. Round and round you
go and you can see it naturally starting
to curve around. So I flip the dough over. Put your hands out and
simply drag them forward. You’ll find the dough lifts up. Turn it 45 degrees and go again. Keep repeating,
each time the surface of the dough
is getting that little bit tighter. A little roll around. And now we have a perfect little
loaf ready to go. And pop it into our basket
upside down. And it’s into our little Pyrex dish
with our tea-towel. And just so it doesn’t stick, a little dusting of flour. And now with the tea-towel,
you simply tuck it straight in. So we just tucked our dough in and
we’re going to let it prove again. It needs to prove for about another
three to three and a half hours. The great thing about this though
is, at this stage, you could go and put this straight
in the fridge. And it can sit there all night long,
no problem whatsoever. Because, with our sourdough,
it’s moving lovely and slowly. And some yeasted breads would
tend to overprove in the fridge. Sourdough really lends itself
to be proven overnight. So we’ll leave it there all night.
First thing tomorrow morning, we’ll come back,
take our dough out turn it straight out
and into our oven and we’ll bake it away. Our sourdough has been proving,
they’ve had a second prove now. We had them shaping. We had one
in our lovely proving basket. And our second one
in our lovely Pyrex dish. So at this stage
they are ready to bake. Your dough should have a
nice little bounce to it. You should be able to touch it and
there’s no fear of it collapsing. So if you kind of touch it and felt
the whole thing was going to drop, you’ve overproved it, so the idea is
at least you know for next time, catch it a little sooner.
The idea is we catch it on the rise. Have your baking tray ready. If you’re using a proving basket or
lucky to have one at home, so simply like a sandcastle, just
turn your dough straight out. So you can see
all that beautiful pattern which the dough picks up
from the basket. That’s what gives this dough a lot
of its traditional markings. So then we’ve also got our lovely
Pyrex dish. It’s a great way
to improvise at home. It’s been tucked in for the last
couple of hours. We’re going to gently waken it up. And all you do, very simply, just in case it’s going to stick, we’ll put a little bit of flour
on our dough. So we take our lid,
you pop your lid on. And you literally just flip it
upside down. So take it off. Nice and gently, just remove your
flour and tea-towel. Most professional ovens
are fitted with steam. The idea being for the first 8 to 10
minutes of your bake, the dough is still rising. So by having steam in the oven,
it allows the dough to open up. And it stops a crust from forming. Because often what can happen
if you don’t use steam, curst forms, the dough hasn’t
finished rising, and sometimes it can’t break
through the surface. It gets a bulge out the side because it’ll look for any weakness
in the dough. Or sometimes it won’t rise at all.
So by having steam in the oven it protects the dough and allows it
to continue to open up. That’s also what helps to create
your lovely little crust. This is why the Pyrex dish is
so great, it’s so brilliant. Because no matter
how crappy your oven is, you don’t even have to steam it,
because basically once we pop the lid on, it’s going
to basically self steam. It creates its own little chamber. And it’ll steam the bread and does
a perfect job for us. Before we do that though, we’re
going to score our bread. It dates back to central ovens. Each village would have one,
everyone would help maintain it. So the only way to tell your bread
apart is how you mark it. It’s called a baker’s signature. We use a razor blade. The thing to remember when you’re
using it, it’s not a bread knife, so don’t start doing this.
Be nice and confident. So a really sharp knife at home
if you can. When you’re in full control… And don’t be afraid
to cut into your dough. Just make sure you
cut all the way through. So by scoring it,
as well as aesthetics it also helps you to control
how the dough rises and gives the dough
somewhere to go. So when it comes to baking your
dough, don’t be afraid to turn the temperature
of your oven up. We all have a tendency to cook
absolutely everything at 180. It’s like the universal setting
on an oven. But with bread, we need those good
high temperatures. So really crank it up.
So you’re looking at a minimum of 230 degrees.
We need that high temperature to create that lovely, lovely crust. So a great way we can create steam
at home, is by as we pop our bread in, and pop in our little Pyrex dish. Once you pre-heat the oven, just turn it right up,
put in a roasting tray and pre-heat it and all I’m doing is
taking some hot water… Which is going to release that
lovely blast of steam into our oven which is going to help
your bread rise. {an8}

100 thoughts on “How To Make Sourdough Bread Masterclass”

  1. Yes, yeast is a fungus. An unfortunate slip of the tongue & and oversight in the edit (our bad), but Patrick definitely knows that yeast is a fungus, we promise! 🙂

  2. Thanks so much for another great recipe !!! You are a bread master. I love your videos, you explain in an easy to understand and very clear way. I made the delicious bread with great success. Many thanks Yael🌺🌸

  3. My sour dough is pushing 90 years old now. Also, you can put it in the fridge for a month and a half–np. 1 cup warm water, 1 cup flour. The excess is good as compost.

    I like a little beer in my sour dough bread when mixing it up btw.

  4. I made a loaf that proofed for one night in the fridge at home and one entire day/night in an ice cooler with about another 4 hours under a towel on my tailgate cooking area while camping. Cooked it in a cast dutch oven over a fire/tri-pod–was perfect. It is pretty forgiving depending on your recipe adaption.

    4 cups flour
    about 1 cup starter
    about 2-2-1/2 cups warm water
    about 1 tbs salt
    about 1 tbs sugar

    about 1/4 cup beer

    Mix in a kitchen aid mixer.

    Form into a ball with some flour to get to a smooth mozzarella constancy–best way to describe it.

    let sit on the oven top(low) in a towel and plate covered, olive oil greased, ceramic bowl for a couple hours

    Pull out the dough and form into ball

    Kneed/stretch it for 35 second count

    Place back into a clean bowl greased with olive oil

    Smooth out the top of the dough with olive oil

    Stick in fridge for the night.

    Pull out of fridge

    let ball get to room temp

    get greased dutch/cast iron oven hot in 410 deg oven/or fire (lard worked good)

    place your ball of dough into hot cast iron, slit top of dough, springlike in some water for steam, and cook for an hour @ 410.

    When you thump the bread with your finger and it makes a hollow echo==the bread is done

    remove the bread from what ever you cooked it in and let it cool.

    Dont eat the bread until it has fully cooled.

  5. I made my first ever loaf of sourdough – actually my first ever loaf of bread from scratch – using this recipe. My dough never looked that silky and didn't seem to rise very much during the proofing, but it certainly rose in the oven, and it turned out perfectly! Excellent texture and taste. Thank you so much for sharing your recipe and technique.

  6. This is the most thorough video I have ever seen. Thank you for taking the time to explain the entire process and so thoughtfully.

  7. I've been making this recipe now for about 3 or 4 months and I decided to do what you said so I started my own home micro bakery and I've been selling my bread to locals at the local produce coop. Unbeknownst to me, apparently, most of the people in my city really know not how to make French toast, and everybody wants to eat out all the time, so when someone posted that they were looking for instructions on making a simple French toast, because they were really apparently 12 years old and not 50, I made this French toast how to video using Patrick's sourdough bread recipe. I prefer sourdough with my French toast to basically any other bread. I love cooking!

  8. I've been trawling through YouTube for sourdough tutorials and THIS ONE IS THE VERY BEST! Yes, I'm shouting, but it deserves to be shouted out.

    Thank you

  9. That was so mesmerizing watching you make that delicious looking bread! I wish at the end you cut into it so we could see the inside!

  10. If you were going to make one loaf would I just cut the recipe in half or is there another recipe? FYI I call my starter Frodough.

  11. Nice relaxing video – but – thinking the yeast comes from the air is a very common misconception. It comes from the flour itself. A little googling around and you can confirm this.

  12. Was just kneading for 20 minutes, totally exhausted put the dough to proof. 😤 By now I thing someone put secretly super glue in there. Will see what happens next … WHAT am I doing wrong? 😥

  13. I've always, since a child, loved bakery and how interesting could be. I can't wait to live by ma own, and do some good sourdough bread, pizzas, croisants and all kind of stuff in my free time.

  14. Cómo me caga ver qué en la miniatura del vídeo el título del vídeo está en español y cuándo entró al vídeo el idioma es gringo!!! Creyendo que el vídeo es en español… 😡😡😠🖕🏻🖕🏻🖕🏻🖕🏻🤬🤬🤬

  15. A few questions (1) I'd like to reduce the amount of starter I have, can I just discard as much as I want? (2) for maintaining the remaining quantity left do I just feed it equal parts of water and flour? i.e. if I'm left with 50g of starter, I add 50g water + 50g flour? (3) How much do I discard each day?

  16. How big was that pyrex dish? It I found one that looks similar but it says it's 0.75 quarts and is 8 inches in diameter. The one in the video looks a bit larger.

  17. Guys guys, i have my bread in the oven in a pyrex tray, but do i take the lid of after around 10 mins, or can i just leave it on?

  18. so on day 3 you throw out basically all(100g) of your starter since you started with 50g flour the first 2 days of feeding then add back 100g of flour and water?

  19. Hello. My question is this, is that when baking the bread in an iron pot in the heat of the oven is higher than when baking the bread on a stone ???? I'd like to receive an answer. Thanks

  20. Thank you Patrick. Some really good tips. Simple tips I can use to improve my own baking. I use Rye flour as a starter medium. I like the use of steam to improve the rise, so often I use steam to create a crisp crust.

  21. Tried this like 5 times
    starter passes water test, window pane effect is achieved and then absolutely 0 rise occurs at all during any of the proofing . Wtf

  22. Oh my god, thank you so much! I was looking for a recipe about how to make properly sourdough starter. This one is easy to follow, easy to understand and really, really helpful, thank you!

  23. Hi, I made it exactly as he did, yet my dough hasn't risen the same way as his (left it overnight in the fridge) …… where did I go wrong?

  24. Patrick is the best! I don't understand the 1.6K thumbs down? I followed all the instructions and had amazing success! The only thing not mentioned was to dust the Banneton liberally with rice flour, I tried bread flour in the past with other loaves and it slightly sticks! I baked mine in a Dutch oven that was preheated for an hour at 480 F.. I lined my Dutch oven with a strip of parchment paper, I misted the dough with water and covered it (lid on). I baked the loaf for 25 minutes, then reduced the temperature to 470 F. with the (lid off) and baked it for an additional 25 minutes. This recipe made one beautiful 10" round loaf, I also made Patrick's recipe for 100% dark rye and it's exactly what I grew up on as a kid!! Thank you so very much for the amazing recipes and so easy to follow instructions!

  25. Can someone advise me how to mail sourdough starter to a friend? I want to mail it fresh and on first class post it should reach next day. I was thinking feed starter and put in fridge for a few hours to make it sleep and then put it in a ziplock bag. But should i leave some air in the bag or squeeze as much air out as possible? Thanks

  26. Well, I'm a bit annoyed I found this video after I'm 2 days into a long process to bake 2 loaves. Gonna have to rethink ever taking recipe advice from friends when the recipe is so involved.

  27. QUESTION: I have starter that I fed then stuck in the fridge for a week. After I give it some time to get to room temp, do I first need to feed it again (the night before I bake?) or can I use it the same day I take it out of the fridge and let it "feed" on the dough that I'm about to bake?

  28. I’ve found that (for my oven at least) the best temp to set it to is 420f (215c, but it isn’t as noice that way)

  29. What a master baker thanks 🙏 I’m gonna try this 100% and 9 years absolute a boss the passion and knowledge is contagious thank you

  30. After straggling to get a wheat starter going with a regular flour I managed to get one going using stone ground whole wheat flour, which frankly looks more like rye flour. It's lovely and bubbly, smells great, looks fermented, and floats in water, and I tried using it twice to bake the wheat bread, both times, the dough just does not rise 🙁
    I don't understand why, and will appreciate any suggestions

  31. Everyone: This is the easiest sourdough bread recipe ever! Thanks! I'm making it!
    Me: More than a few hours to make? Wait—what?
    Much respect for any bakery that makes this for real. I'll never complain about the price again.

  32. Guys from day 3 onwards do we discard some of the starter? I'm at day 4 – didn't discard a thing – and it's quite wet, only a few bubbles! Not sure if i should discard some? facepalm thanks!

  33. Me aclaró muchas dudas y de paso me ha dado ideas …
    Estoy por animarme a elaborar mi propia masa madre. Algún otro consejo aparte de los expuestos??
    Yo hornearia para mí familia…
    En horno de estufa con gas, sin vapor.
    No tengo experiencia en ésto pero me ha dado el impulso que necesitaba.
    Gracias por su tiempo para hacer ésta receta!!!
    Gracias además por compartir trucos.
    Saludos cordiales desde México!!

  34. I don't get it, he just says feed the starter day for day. However he writes "Discard" the starter…What the heck am I supposed to do now? Should I feed the starter now or should I throw it away?!

  35. Ahh the moment he takes it out of the oven… I could dig into that and just destroy it like a savage that hasn't eaten in weeks

  36. excellent video – thumbs up from me 🙂

    one tip I'd suggest is to buy a few tea towels that are dedicated for baking and nothing else – they pick up the flour and the handy bacteria – never put them through the washing machine or your bread will taste of persil washing powder – just rinse them in warmn water and let them dry every now and then if they get mucky

  37. I came across this recipe and have successfully made a lovely sourdough bread. I would like to try making 2 loaves at a time since it takes so long. I do have a question to anyone who can help. How long can I keep the dough in the fridge before baking. Can it keep for 2-3 days? Covered or uncovered?

  38. merhaba. hamuru yoğururken sevmediğiniz bir kişiyi düşünerek yoğurmak hamura olumsuz enerji yükleyecektir. bu çok fena. ben böyle bir ekmeği yemek istemezdim. keşke ekmek piştikten sonra kesip içini de gösterseydiniz. gluten etkiyi artırmak için tuzu sonradan eklemek gerekir diye biliyorum. ve şekil verirken bütün mayayı söndürmek iyi değil. katlama işlemi de yapmadınız. bunların dışında verdiğiniz bilgiler çok güzeldi. bunlara rağmen ekmeğiniz de çok güzel görünüyor. sadece ekmekteki gözenekleri ve delikleri merak ettim. video için çok zaman ve emek harcamışsınız. verdiğiniz bilgiler için çok çok teşekkür ederim. 🙂

  39. Old school baker: "I left this dough out." 👀 "oh well, I'll use it anyway. Just add fresh dough with it. Wife won't know!" 😈

    Wife: 🤔 "this bread tastes weird. Sort of sour."

    Baker: 😳
    Wife: "make that again."
    Baker: awww yisss "give me a week."

  40. I clicked on this video out of curiosity, as I had changed my phone to Chinese in an effort to insulate myself with the language. The title is in Chinese unlike most YouTube videos. How interesting! Also I like bread and sour dough bread so now I learned something new as well! Cool!

  41. Man, 16 minutes video, but you have to wait 7 days for the yeast, let sit overnight, 3 hours for flour to rise, and another 3 hours, etc etc… why bother to make? Let's go find a good baker in town. solved! LOL. great technique and content!

  42. I don't know how many times I should thank you. Thanks for sharing your experience, only real professional people shares their real knowledge. Thank you

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  44. Why do you throw half of it out? What do you do with it? Make more starter? What happens if you don't throw half of it out and instead don't incorporate so much new flour into the starter?

  45. cheers bro, saw this vid 10 days ago, started to make a starter, made my first loaf from it today and came out perfect first time! great recipe! massive thumbs up

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