beyond first crack, or something to the effect of burning the hell out of the
beans. Joe cleaned it up for PG audiences. Beyond first crack. In Roaster School for these last five weeks, we’ve been looking at the different stages of
roasting, and Joe is going to take us from first crack and beyond today. So Joe,
I know we’re going to get into science, so I’m going to sit back and relax. It’s
all yours, my friend.
going to talk about what happens after first crack, including second crack and
beyond. So often beginning roasters especially, are roasting well beyond
first crack into those darker realms of coffee that we call second crack. There
the dark side in order to pull yourself back toward the light side at times.
that starts out with so much potential in so many variances. However the vast majority of coffee that
is drank around the world is something that I would call nostalgic coffee or
that coffee-coffee. The flavor of coffee that is so ubiquitous with all of the
coffee that you taste. And the way that that ubiquity happens is through
roasting all of the coffees beyond first crack and into or maybe even beyond
second crack. So, in other words you can take all of the dynamics that are in
these various coffees and bring them to one homogeneous characteristic of just
“coffee.” And we don’t really like to do that in specialty coffee. We consider
coffees to be unique based on where they’re grown, how they’re processed, the
variety, the altitude, and that’s why for the most part, you’ll hear Dave and I
teach that you should never move too far into second crack, because you’re taking
all of that lovely characteristic – all of the things you
paid a little extra money for – and you’re homogenizing that. You’re burning it out
of the coffee. However, there are times and places where
roasting a coffee more darkly is appropriate, and as we have said in this
program before, roasting is not a moral endeavor.
endeavor. Now, moving into second crack, past second crack, there is a third crack.
At third crack, that is where it becomes a moral endeavor. OK, I’m just kidding. We want to make
sure that no matter how we’re roasting, that we know our target, we have our
target in mind, and we’re able to hit that target. So that’s why today we are going
to talk about second crack, we are going to talk about roasting a little bit more
dark, because that may be something that you at some point want to do, and you
should have the tools in your toolbox to execute that, execute it well, and execute it
repeatedly. Dave and I were speaking before this, and even he and I have
differing opinions on how to approach second crack, and we’re going to get into
some of that, too. So, what happens? OK, so here you drop the coffee in, you have
the turning point, it goes through yellow, you go through your development time
prior to first crack, development time after first crack, and then all of the
compounds that are in the coffee, they continue to go down their domino effect, their chain of reactions
to the point where they have dissipated so much, that eventually they leave
behind the carbon skeletal frame of the molecules that they once were. Now, within coffee, there are a lot of
resources out there that use terminology that I have listed here, and I want you
to know that this is actually not what’s happening within coffee, generally.
Generally, these three things need very high temperatures, and they’re happening
to much more complex molecular structures that are in organic material.
Like for instance, dry distillation, carbonization, and well, all of these, happen in places
like a volcano or something like that. Usually there needs to be a void of
oxygen. Now, there are subtle snippets of these reactions that are taking place in
coffee, but I’m going to simplify all of these – I’m just going to cross these out,
and I’m going to write charring. This is what’s happening to your coffee as
you’re moving it forward through the roast. Of course, some of these things can
kind of happen, but these are very complex physical things that take place
at very high temperatures. So we’re going to focus just on charting, because
charring not only speaks to what is physically happening in the coffee, but
it’s also speaking to the flavor that you get out of the coffee and the visual
cues that you get within the coffee, so it’s a really good term. And what does
charring mean? Well, charring means that you are getting flavors of burning. If
you take a steak, for instance, and you sear that steak off on both sides,
and then you cook it to where the middle is nice and medium rare, you will still get some flavors of
charring, and that adds to the complexity of that piece of meat. It adds to the
flavor. You go through the Maillard reaction on that piece of meat, and then
past that, you start to burn up those compounds that are on the exterior part
of that piece of meat, and you get a little bit of carbony flavor. Carbony
flavors, charring flavors, are bitter. They’re usually pretty much the same,
whether you get a charring flavor on a piece of meat or a cookie or whatever it
is, they’re pretty much the same – coffee. But they add to the complexity of that
coffee. So there are different ways that you can go about approaching that
charring, and whether or not you want to preserve the flavors that were there
prior to the charring, like you would on a medium rare steak, or whether you want
the coffee itself all the way through to taste more on the charred side. So, why would
you ever want to do that? Well, if you get that coffee that is
defective, or there’s something it’s getting too old or there’s something
about the coffee that is negative, you can actually cook those flavors out by
changing those compounds that are making the negative flavor into flavors of
charring. Some people prefer darker roasts of coffee, because they actually
enjoy this flavor in a big way. And so they prefer dark roast because, charring
is a flavor that we here refer to as robust or strong or intense. It’s
one unique flavor that can be overpowering in the cup.
the time, and they’re working with customers that are asking for those oily
with that charred, roasted flavor and they think that’s the best that coffee can do.
So I suggest to them that they use them as a dialogue opportunity, because that
customers not wrong, that customer is willing to pay $14 for a full pound of that
roasted coffee that’s a bit charred–give them some opportunity, use that for an
you continue to move very quickly into second crack, you can roast the outside
of that coffee–those outside layers will start to get that charry flavor, but the
interior of that coffee maybe kind of protected because it’s not moving quite
at the same speed as the outside. So you hit that second crack pretty hard and
then you drop it as you move into that second crack. And you can
preserve some of the natural flavor of the coffee, that you developed into the
coffee, while at the same time adding that char flavor to the outside. So, it
would be more like your medium to medium-rare steak approach to charing
the coffee, or if you slow it down as you’re moving into second crack–by
slowing it down you can kind of break down some of the unique characteristics
of a coffee, almost to the point where you can even bake if you do this more
exaggerated, and then bring it into second crack nice and slowly and then
you get a more unilateral flavor and you can hit the same target much more easy.
It’s kind of like landing a plane. If you land the plane very very quickly, it’s very hard to hit the runway in the
exact same place every time because that last moment of landing the plane is very
volatile. Roasting coffee into second crack is very similar. If you move in
very quickly, it’s very hard to hit the exact same
target of flavor every single time. The further into the roast you get, the more
a small amount or a small range of change will make an impact in the cup. If
I drop a coffee a minute after first crack and then a minute and 10 seconds
after first crack, the difference is going to be a lot more subtle. However, the same coffee doing that in
second crack, if I’m moving fairly quickly, the change is going to be very great, Because those molecular reactions are moving at a much faster pace and i’ll go
further down that chain of reaction much more quickly. So, what else is happening?
Why in a second crack even happen? So, first crack we know it’s from the
bean getting inflated from all of these chemical reactions that are taking place,
and the seed is swelling up, swelling up, swelling up, to the point where the
pressure builds up so much so that the the coffee seed bursts open and allows
all of that gas to release. However, once it has released that gas, now the bean is
more porous and open, and anymore gases that are being built up in the coffee
are starting to gas off very quickly. However, as we move through second crack the actual
cellulose structure of the seed itself begins to decompose. In that
decomposition adds for a lot more gas, especially carbon dioxide to start
building up on the inside of that seed. And with that structural integrity
breaking down, it doesn’t really need to swell the seed anymore. It’s so
brittle that’ll just start crackling and and breaking down the actual cell
structure itself. If you move quickly into second crack, you’ll see those little
pucks fly off, we call that chipping. Those little disks that pop off, they’ll blast
off the side of the coffee and leave a little crater, that is something that
tells us we’re moving too quickly and much more violently or volatile-y
through that phase of second cracked. So slow it down, if you see that. That is
actually considered a roast defect by the SCAA and others. So slow it down, keep it chill.
generally if you’re roasting on a popper you’re using a lot of air, and that air,
that convective heat, is what is doing that. You can modulate your poppers. I’m
sure you guys know this from several threads on home barista, to where you
have a dimmer switch for the power that your popper has. You can also gently
shake it at lower heat so that it doesn’t have quite so much air, but you’re still
keeping it aloft. There are a few tricks that you can do to kind of slow down that
Where is it coming from? As you open up that seed more, and the pores of the seed
become more open, which is through the degradation of cellulose and also
through the swelling of the seed that took place during first crack and beyond, you are allowing for those large fat
molecules that have now broken free from where they normally had
been. You’re allowing them to now just ooze out on the outside of the coffee.
That oil will go bad very quickly. A darker roast is also open to oxygenation
very quickly. A darker roast is also open to leaching its carbon dioxide much more quickly. All of that is to say a dark roast will stale very quickly. Ok, so a lot of the more nostalgic
flavors that we think of in coffee are actually also stale flavors in coffee. So
I do highly recommend that if you are doing dark roast, that you use those dark
roasts very quickly. If you don’t, the oil on the outside becomes rancid. Some
studies shown that rancidity of oil in coffee takes place within about 30
seconds. Of course that’s unavoidable. If you have the coffee out on the cooling tray
it’s going to cool with in that amount of time. Rancidity is simply the
oxygenation of the fat, of the oil itself, which can cause off flavors. So I do
recommend that if you are going to go dark try to get the the flavor of
charring on to the coffee in a way that still preserves some of the flavor
within the seed, while not allowing a bunch of oil to come pouring out. So
hitting the first part of second crack to where you are getting a little bit of
that charring can bridge the gap to your drinkers that are looking for a more
nostalgic cup, while at the same time promoting the longevity of that coffee,
and allowing that coffee to not go stale in a very quick way.
that cup, is that because that’s a softer bean? Is any of this elevation or
clearly that this is a theory. And this is actually the first time I’m
debuting this theory publicly. Ok, so I –got the microphone?–
cherry off the tree and you’re drying that cherry out, my theory–and I hesitate
to state this yet but I’m going to state it anyway–I’ve spoken to enough people–
its husk, the cherry skin, and it’s sitting in its juices and then slowly
drying down in the warm sun for 4, 6 weeks at a time, that the seed inside of
that cherry is actually beginning the germination process. So it’s beginning
the malting process. And what malting means is that all of those compounds that have
been stored up in the cellular structure of that seed are beginning to be
unlocked, and they’re beginning to become more soluble. Which of course, when we
roast coffee we take a non-soluble seed, that green seed, put it into a roaster,
use heat to break down those molecules so that then they become soluble. In the
case of malting, like if for instance barley and wheat for beer, you allow
the seed’s germination process to break down those heavy starches and begin that
process of making that product soluble. So, my theory is that with a naturally
processed coffee we’re already a little bit farther along in that molecular
chain of breaking down those compounds. And so since we’re further
along there, once we get the first crack we’re actually further along in the
roasting process than we think we are. And so instead of thinking about oh I
should drop this a minute after first crack, because we are further along the
chain of development. We’re still trying to abide by these old
hierarchical rules that have been dictated to us, that we should go a
minute and a half to two minutes after first crack, and so we’re already over
roasting the coffee when we should have listened to the cupping
table that tells us that’s over roasted. What do you do if it’s over roasted? Well,
roast it less. So don’t be afraid on a natural process coffee to slow things
down, and to roasted a little lighter. Know that second crack may come a time
where the coffee tastes more dark already.
thesis proposal in organic chemistry let’s say, could take Joe Morocco’s
proposed–would be a hypothesis at this point?
but one of the fascinating things about coffee is there so much yet to be
record. I just don’t know when yet– whenever I get the time.
that knows something about science. I majored in business.
happening within fire. When there is no oxygen present and you have very high
temperatures, you’re still breaking down molecules, basically, and so it is an
oxygen-free high temp breakage of molecule from whatever state that
molecule was, in down to its basic carbon element. And so, there is potentially some
of this that is happening within the coffee seed but there’s no way for me to
say, in this cell, on this molecule, there was no oxygen
present. On this one over here there was oxygen present. And so, we had two
different types of breakdown of these two molecules and so therefore we have
two different flavors that were created due to that. It doesn’t matter, because at
the end of the day you’re breaking it down to more carbon base regardless of
whether there’s oxygen or whether there is no oxygen present. So that’s why for
us to be more exact we actually have to be less exact within the general sense
of roasting coffee. These are extremely specific reactions
that take place under very specific types of environments, and so we don’t
have the absorption of heat, it’s pulling heat into the see, so that then chemical changes will take
place so this is endothermic heating, or the heating of absorption, whereas this
is exothermic heating, or the creation of new energy through chemical breakdown.
And every time you have a molecule break, there’s a little snippet of energy that
is given off and there’s also a snippet of that molecule that is given off,
generally in the form of some kind of gas, most likely carbon dioxide or H20.
And so, as you move forward here it is the energy from the fire, from the drum,
from other seeds that have more energy than the seeds were speaking of, whether
it’s conductive or convective energy, that energy is hitting a molecule at a
temperature that is reactionary for that molecule, that molecule breaks. That
breakage does not happen prior to yellow. And when it does happen we refer to
those chemical breakdown processes as the maillard reaction and caramelization
primarily, but there are also a lot of other reactions that are taking place.
question but I don’t remember what it was in my head.
would you show your way to take your rate of rise into second crack?
just a hypothesis.
things in a different manner than if you are a home roaster and you’re trying to
do something experimental and like one off, one time, and trying different
coffees to see how that particular coffee tastes the best at a dark roast. If you want to do that
way, this is kind of what your your rate of rise should look like. It should kind
of come up you know and then kind of come down and then do that. Ok. So here you have a control. Instead of
focusing on slowing this down too much after first crack, what Dave recommends
that you do is don’t worry about development time here, because all of
these subtle nuances that you want to get out of the coffee– these are nuances
by the way all– of these subtle flavor nuances that you want to get a coffee
have tapered off at this point anyway. And what you want to get is into second
crack without baking the coffee out too much. So then you would drop the coffee at
about the same rate of rise momentum that you would have dropped the coffee
without it going to second crack. Is that correct?
first crack, I do not diminish the heat and so that rate of rise just runs
through there without the typical divot that we see when those gases come off the bean–during first crack.
of rise it normally looks a little bit like this Where you do have a divot. Obviously don’t want the flick, ok, you do have the divot and then it
comes down, and then you should just continue to
kind of ride that out until you hit the point where you want to stop the roast. You may actually, in some cases, see this plateau or go up a little bit as you get
further into second crack, as long as you’re able to control that and hit the
same mark every single time. If your production roaster it’s very important
that you’re hitting the same mark every time. There’s not something called a
better or worse roast for production roaster. There’s a right or wrong roast.
Right roast is that you’ve hit the mark that you wanted to hit, the wrong roast
is that you did not hit that mark.
in here are relatively new to coffee roasting and I’m not sure i want to give
them this dance to learn, because they indeed will have customers that are
going to want that second crack.
it is that’s going to brew that coffee, we want them to have a successful
extraction which leads to a successful flavor experience. So when you start
getting deeper in this roast you’re affecting not only flavor, but you’re
also affecting something that we may not think very much about, which is the
brittleness of the coffee so if i give a barista a coffee that I think tastes
pretty good on the cupping table but it’s slightly different in brittleness,
then when they go to put that through the espresso machine they’re going to
have to make a grind adjustment in order to fix what it is that i gave them.
variations on where i’m dropping, and how i’m dropping, and these coffees all have
different brittle intensities then my braces can be very frustrated because
they’re going to have to continually make adjustments. If you have a very
consistent roasting program the brittleness of each type of coffee that
you roast should be very consistent and the barista that should be set up to where
they’re not making and finagling a bunch of adjustments to fix where the coffee
is. And that’s a big deal. Joe, a second question we offer eight to
ten single origins here, and we’ll cup them and we’ve begun pulling shots with
every single origin. Most single origins in my opinion 7 out of 10, you can do
an espresso roast under no need to blend that good, good, good coffee away. Talk
about roasting a single origin to an espresso level.
thumb on how you should do this. The general way that most companies
roast for espresso is they go a little bit more slow through first crack and
after first crack, what they call development, so that you can kind of tame
down the acidity and bring to light a little bit more of the sweetness because
when you put that coffee through an espresso machine it’s like taking a magnifying glass and
shining only the acidity through that magnifying glass. Body, of course ,is
enhanced because of the concentration level of the coffee to water, but really
that acidity can be kind of overpowering for most coffee drinkers. So people slow
it down to tame that acidity down. There is, of course, the theory of, or the method
i should say, of a omni-roast and an omni-roast is one roast
that highlights all of the characteristic that that coffee has to offer, hypothetically, and should work in every
brewing device all the time, including espresso. I believe that there are some
coffees that you can highlight in that way and that there are other coffees
that simply don’t work. So all of these hard and fast rules, once again, put them
to the test. At the end of the day, if you’re roasting a coffee for espresso
and it tastes bad then don’t just say, “oh, I really was
hoping to avoid an omni–or– I was hoping to adhere to the omni-roast.” No, do what tastes good, follow your palate,
do it does every single time. We harp on, that is your goal, you want to be happy
with your roast at the end of the day.
give you a new single origin Ethiopian it’s a washed yirgacheffe and you’re going to want to roast that the first time not for evaluation, not for cupping, not for pour over.
You’re going to run them through your swiss cremina at home, your espresso
machine. How are you going to roast that coffee the
first time for espresso?
if I’m drinking it for regular consumption through a regular brewer I
would use something generically called, more of a city plus kind of roast and if
I’m doing it for espresso it’s going to be more of a full city to full city plus.
tame down the acidity, and I think that’s how you control those subtle notes that
you have in a cup of that coffee to still be there as subtle notes in the
espresso version of that same coffee.
in a digestible way that helps me improve my roast.